Key Findings

  1. Tire Modeling: The book emphasizes the importance of accurate tire modeling for predicting vehicle behavior. It discusses various approaches to tire modeling, including empirical, semi-empirical, and theoretical methods.

  2. Vehicle Dynamics: The interaction between tires and vehicle dynamics is explored in detail. The book covers how tires influence vehicle handling, stability, and performance, as well as the impact of different driving conditions.

  3. Magic Formula: A significant contribution of the book is the development and explanation of the “Magic Formula” tire model, which is widely used in the automotive industry for simulating tire forces and moments.

The Magic Formula


The Magic Formula is an empirical model that describes the relationship between tire forces/moments and the slip (either longitudinal or lateral) experienced by the tire. It’s called the “Magic Formula” because of its ability to accurately fit experimental data across a wide range of conditions, despite its relatively simple mathematical structure.

The general form of the Magic Formula for longitudinal force can be expressed as:


  • is the Longitudinal Slip Ratio.
  • , , , and are fitting coefficients, often referred to as stiffness, shape, peak, and curvature factors, respectively.

For lateral force , the formula is similar but uses the Slip Angle as the input variable:

Link to original


  1. Accuracy: Provides an excellent fit to experimental data across a wide range of tire conditions and operating scenarios.
  2. Simplicity: Relatively simple and computationally efficient, making it suitable for real-time applications.
  3. Versatility: Can be adapted for different types of tires and various vehicle dynamics simulations, including both longitudinal and lateral dynamics.
  4. Industry Adoption: Widely used in the automotive industry, particularly in vehicle simulation software and tire testing applications.


  1. Empirical Nature: Relies heavily on fitting parameters to experimental data. It may not accurately predict tire behavior outside the range of conditions for which it was calibrated.
  2. Complex Parameterization: Determining the fitting coefficients requires lots of experimental data, which may be difficult to collect.
  3. Limited Physical Insight: Being an empirical model, it provides limited visibility into the underlying physical mechanisms of the tire at any given point in time.